The shoulder joint is the most movable joint in the body. It is comprised of the collarbone, the shoulder blade, and the upper arm bone. Shoulders are prone to injury because they are by nature unstable since the ball of the upper arm is larger than the socket that holds it. Hence it is the site of many common problems such as sprains, strains, dislocations, rotator cuff tears, and frozen shoulder.
A sprain is a stretched or torn ligament. Ligaments are tissues that connect bones at a joint. A sprain occurs when trauma (like falling, twisting or getting
hit) causes two bones to move beyond their normal range of motion and the ligament is stretched. Ankle and wrist sprains are the most common sprains and symptoms include pain, swelling, bruising and being unable to move the joint.
Tendinopathy refers to damage to a muscle tendon, the most common of which affects the elbow (tennis elbow) and the Achilles tendon. Tendinopathy can be caused by sports or work-related activities that involve repetitive overuse or sudden trauma (tendinitis) or degeneration and tearing of the tendon(tendinosis).
The knee joint is made up of bone, cartilage, ligaments and fluid. Muscles and tendons help the knee joint move. When any of these structures are injured, there will be knee problems, specifically pain and difficulty moving. Common knee conditions include patella femoral pain syndrome, IT band friction syndrome, and ligament sprains. Tears to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are caused by a sudden twisting motion in the knee.
A strain is a stretched or torn muscle or tendon. Tendons are tissues that connect muscle to bone. A strain occurs when a muscle is stretched beyond its limits during the course of everyday activities like with a sudden lift or a twist during sport or while performing a work task. Strains can happen suddenly or develop over time like in the case of repetitive strain. Back and hamstring muscle strains are common. Typically the local area is painful, swollen, red and bruised and the muscle may spasm and become weak.